A bunion is seen as an enlargement or “bump” on the inside of the foot near the big toe.
In more severe cases when the big toe joint is unable to move at all, the condition is called hallux rigidus (rigid big toe joint).
A tailor’s bunion (bunionette)is seen as an enlargement or “bump” on the outside of the foot near the little toe.
A callus is an area of thickened skin located on the bottom of the foot, in most cases on the ball of the foot and/or heel.
Hammer Toes occur when the tendons and ligaments around the toes become contracted and the toes take on a “claw-like” appearance.
A soft corn forms between the toes when the bony prominence known to doctors as the “condyle” of a toe rubs against the condyle of the adjacent toe while walking.
The most common cause of thick toenails is a fungus infection similar or identical to the fungus that causes “athlete’s foot.”
An Ingrown Toenail occurs when the side of a toenail begins to cut through the surrounding skin which is referred to by doctors as the ungualabia or “nail lip.”
Morton’s Neuroma occurs when one of the nerves on the bottom of the foot becomes “pinched” between two adjacent metatarsal bones or the base of the bones of two adjacent toes.
EPAT is an acronym for Extracorporeal Pulse Activation Treatment. “Extracorporeal” means “outside the body.”
Heel pain is usually caused by acute or chronic inflammation of the plantar fascia, a ligament-like structure located on the bottom of the foot.
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As the name implies, a stress fracture is a break in the bone, which results from cumulative and/or repetitive strain to a particular site. These fractures are most commonly seen affecting the long bones or metatarsals of the foot. More specifically, they seem to involve most often, the three middle metatarsals with the second metatarsal being to most common. Pain in varying degrees is usually the chief complaint and it may or may not be accompanied by swelling and discoloration. A lump or soft tissue enlargement is frequently present over the site involved. Stress fractures are often problems because of their tendency to be missed or neglected. In most cases of metatarsal stress fractures, the actual bone break does not show on a regular x-ray for about ten days to two weeks from its onset. These fractures should be identified as soon as possible and properly managed by a specialist in order to insure a good result and prevent unnecessary disability.
The main cause of a stress fracture is that of cumulative or repetitive strain to a particular bone site. A long day on cement floors at a mall, an unusually hard hike or exercise walk, or maybe a long march in the military or as a member of a marching band can all qualify as possibly overstressing a metatarsal bone leading to a fracture. Cumulative strain to a particular site involves smaller stress loads that are repeated over a lengthy period of time. Either heavy strain for a short time period or lighter loads repeated over a longer time period can produce localized stress fractures. Usually, an x-ray taken after about ten days from the injury onset will identify the fracture site. Occasionally, more sophisticated tests are performed such as bone scans which are capable of making an earlier diagnosis.
A stress fracture is treated in much the same manner as most any other bone break. The area involved must be protected, supported, and immobilized to some extent. Motion at the fracture site has to be controlled so as to allow proper healing to occur. In most cases, a protective fracture shoe is used to accomplish these goals. The patient should limit his or her walking and should be followed up by a foot specialist to monitor the healing process.